In response to the FY17 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) requirement that all significant security cooperation programs and activities contain a program of assessment, monitoring, and evaluation (AM&E) IDA sponsored an internally funded survey of existing literature in this field and initiated preliminary work to develop an AM&E framework for Defense Institution Building (DIB) programs. This paper describes IDA’s recommended approach to AM&E for DIB programs with emphasis on incorporating AM&E into the DIB work plan from the earliest stages of the program design process. The preponderance of existing literature on AM&E focuses on traditional development projects where measuring performance and effectiveness of programs is an established and common practice. The field of literature for AM&E of DIB activities is not as mature and the practical application of an AM&E framework is rare. The unique and highly complex nature of change in defense institutions makes AM&E a potentially challenging – but not impossible – exercise. This paper describes how DIB practitioners may approach AM&E in their fields of work. This paper supplements the academic record with a practical application of the principles outlined in FY17 NDAA and describes a method to incorporate AM&E into a DIB work plan in an observable manner.