Military operations succeed or fail depending on the knowledge and skill of the soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines who carry them out. However, the rapidly increasing technical complexity of military operations is raising the level of training needed to perform them. Research has found that one-on-one tutoring adapted to the specific needs, capabilities, and background of individual learners substantially increases learning well beyond that typically provided by classroom instruction. Unfortunately, training of this sort, delivered through the use of one-on-one human tutoring, is, except for rare instances, unaffordable. Nonetheless, it may become practicable through the use of computers employing machine intelligence to provide adaptive, individualized tutorial instruction. This article reviews efforts to build these intelligent computer-based systems and a recent metaanalysis to determine their effectiveness.