The United States maintains a National Defense Stockpile of non-fuel strategic and critical materials. The stockpile is managed by the Department of Defense (DOD). Under Section 14 of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act, the Secretary of Defense is required to submit biennial reports to Congress concerning what materials the stockpile should contain and in what amounts. The overarching analytic framework used for this purpose is called RAMF-SM (the Risk Assessment and Mitigation Framework for Strategic Materials). Accredited by the Defense Logistics Agency and DOD, and developed by the Institute for Defense Analyses, RAMF-SM is used to help determine what stockpiling and other risk mitigation efforts are prudent.