Sexual misconduct is a significant social problem, both in and out of the military. It can be life-altering for those who experience it, and it can cause significant strain in the communities where it happens. Military policymakers have called for an evidence-based understanding of the individual and contextual factors that may contribute to sexual misconduct. In this document, we identify research opportunities that could be used to inform future interventions. The purpose of this document is to introduce the state of knowledge on sexual misconduct and provide recommendations on how to advance this important area of research.