Megatrends are sustained developments that fundamentally impact business, economy, society, cultures, and personal lives. Recent advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) will enable Autonomous Systems (AS), with far-reaching implications in both the civilian sector and defense. AI-enabled robots will perform difficult and dangerous tasks that require human-like intelligence. Self-driving cars will revolutionize automobile transportation systems and reduce traffic fatalities. Big-data analytics using AI techniques will make human-like decisions to improve governmental social services, health care, criminal justice and the environment. AI-enabled autonomous robotic soldiers, aerial drones, and underwater and land vehicles will perform military missions. These revolutionary technological advances will have significant impacts on the economy, military, and society. We are seeing a whole new generation of AI and AS that will change, in unforseen ways, how we live, work, play, and fight wars. However, for the public and military to adopt AI and AS, society and military must have confidence that these systems are trustworthy and safe. A number of important issues are awaiting policymakers, including research and development, workforce development, safety, cybersecurity, ethics, regulations, and automated warfare.