MAKING GOOD DECISIONS IS HARD: Good analysis helps but should not be the sole basis for a decision.
Good decisions consider non-quantifiable factors, such as the value structure and experiences of the decision
maker and those who serve as advisers. Incorporating these factors can be difficult, as decision makers
often have conflicting priorities and are confronted with contradictory inputs from staff. IDA developed the
Integrated Risk Assessment and Management Model (IRAMM) to capture these informed personal views to
help decision makers understand the foundations of their own views on national security issues and where
those views fit relative to their peers and staff. The method also helps build teamwork among senior staff
that can result in imaginative solutions to challenging problems and promote the consistent application of
organizational policies. Another benefit of the IRAMM structure is the national-level perspective it provides,
which makes it a useful tool for supporting the development, coordination, and implementation of national
defense and security strategies, including the articulation of the resulting strategy to others.