Reserve Component Service Members (RCSMs) are required to meet individual medical readiness (IMR) standards. While medical readiness reporting has improved, the Department o Defense does not have a full understanding of the nature of RCSM IMR shortfalls and their underlying causes. The full range of possible interventions to optimize reserve component medical readiness is also not fully understood. This analysis explores RCSM IMR shortfalls and estimates the costs and benefits of several interventions. We find RCSM IMR rates have improved greatly over the last decade, and we recommend ways to address remaining RCSM medical readiness gaps.