The medical E&T enterprise is large, complex, and decentralized. While numerous studies have been conducted on various aspects of military medical E&T, this paper represents the first attempt to assemble a comprehensive picture of the medical E&T enterprise. To conduct this assessment, the IDA team first identified all E&T stakeholders and programs within the feasibility study’s scope. We then assembled a large medical E&T inventory in which we catalogued all identified programs. A medical E&T taxonomy was developed for classifying and organizing hundreds of E&T activities by category (initial training, sustainment training, or professional development) and by the type of medical competencies they provide (basic medical, general military medical, or Service-specific military medical). This taxonomy was later used as a framework for determining where medical E&T activities should align under the proposed ETO during the option development phase.