The medical education and training (E&T) enterprise is large, complex, and decentralized. The purpose of this project is to analyze the feasibility (and desirability) of consolidating military medical E&T organizations, functions, and activities into a newly established Education and Training Organization (ETO) subordinate to the Defense Health Agency and headed by the president of the Uniformed Services University (USU). To complete this analysis, we perform the first collective assessment of the Department’s medical E&T enterprise as a whole. Three different reform models are then developed and analyzed. Our findings indicate that it is feasible to consolidate medical E&T and that consolidation would be expected to provide certain benefits. However, the estimated financial and opportunity costs associated with the reform options are also significant.