NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) is responsible for development of crosscutting and pioneering technologies and capabilities in the agency. In support of an STMD internal review, STPI examined the organization and management of early stage portfolios of other agencies in the Federal Government. This report provides case studies of early stage portfolios in the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health. The case studies are derived from interviews with program managers or officers of early stage programs in the departments and agencies. Findings are presented in the following categories as they relate to early stage research and development: definition and approach, budget, personnel allocation and management of investment, transition, and evaluation of success.