The programs of the Department of Defense (DOD) have traditionally focused their Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) management efforts on electronic items. From a risk-based perspective, this is a decision based on the realization that the relatively short life cycles of electronic items virtually guarantee obsolescence at some point, if not multiple points, during the life cycle of DOD systems. DOD guidance and government and private sector data bases and predictive tools have focused predominately on DMSMS management of electronic items as well. The reality, though, is that DOD systems contain items other than merely electronic ones and any item type can experience obsolescence. Facing budget constraints, a program’s decision to pursue a more comprehensive approach to DMSMS management is not without challenges. This briefing describes how a program can apply a risk-based approach to identifying which materials (including critical materials located in the lower tiers of the supply chain) and which mechanical items cause the most potential concern. Therefore, the program should be proactively monitored.