IDA’s Africa Watch features analysis and commentary by members of IDA’s Africa team on current developments on the continent. We would greatly value your comments and reactions. If you wish to contact us for that or any other reason, please send an email to email@example.com.
George F. Ward
- Volume 14, March 9, 2017
- The Liptako–Gourma Authority's Joint Task Force: The Solution to Rising Insecurity on Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso?
- The United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Mali Enters Its Fifth Year
- Volume 14, February 23, 2017
- The EU's Emergency Trust Fund for Africa: Combining the Refugee and Development Agendas
- Botswana—Challenges to a Success Story
- Volume 14, February 16, 2017
- Cameroon: Anglophone Protests Highlight Historical Grievances
- ECOWAS Acts Decisively in Favor of Democracy in The Gambia
- Volume 14, February 2, 2017
- Economic Growth—A Tale of Two Africas
- Somalia's Presential Election: Delays and Insecurity Create Challenges
- Volume 14, January 5, 2017
- Renewable Energy—Africa's Next "Mobile" Revolution?
- Kenya: Political Tensions Increase Ahead of 2017 Election
- Volume 13, December 22, 2016
- Libya: The Weak Link in Migration Control
- Zimbabwe: Mugabe, 92, Selected to Run Again in 2018 Election
- Constitutional Crisis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Volume 13, December 15, 2016
- Presidential Succession in Angola—A Pause In The Plan?
- Is Mokhtar Belmokhtar Really Dead?
- China in Africa: Economic Myths and Soft Power
- Volume 13, December 8, 2016
- A Forgotten Emergency: The Humanitarian Crisis in the Lake Chad Basis
- Unexpected Electoral Turnover in The Gambia
- Volume 13, December 1, 2016
- Zimbabwe—Warning Lights Flashing
- Migrant Flows and Migrant Smuggling–Niger's Next Internal Threat?
- Ghana Elections: Electoral Commission Hopes for Better
- Volume 13, November 17, 2016
- Zuma Survives Latest No-Confidence Vote – What's Next?
- Soldiers Without Borders: The French Military in the Sahel
- Lesotho's Governing Coalition Collapses
- Volume 13, November 9, 2016
- AMISOM and Peace Support Operations: Lessons Learned
- Nigeria's Two-Pronged Approach to Economic Recovery
- Boy Soldiers, Girl Victims: Gender Misconceptions and Women in War
- Volume 13, October 20, 2016
- Corruption and Violence in Africa: What Does the Literature Say?
- Turkey and Africa After the Failed Coup
- Mali—The Deadliest of All current United Nations Peacekeeping Missions
- Volume 13, October 13, 2016
- Who Joins Boko Haram and Why?
- Germany's Migrant Crisis Has Roots in Africa as Well as the Middle East
- Has the International Criminal Court Failed Africa?
- Volume 12, September 29, 2016
- Democracy Delayed in Somalia
- Can the Democratic Republic of the Congo Overcome Its Election Crisis Through Dialogue?
- Can Natural Gas Rescue Mozambique's Economy?
- Volume 12, September 22, 2016
- Is ISIS Making Inroads in East Africa?
- Drug Trafficking in Africa: From Transit Zone to Consumer Market?
- The Obstacles to Consolidating Democracy in Gabon are Shared Throughout Region
- Volume 12, September 1, 2016
- Somali Refugees in Dadaab: There to Stay?
- East African Oil and Gas—The Future is Not Now
- Securing the Virtual Savannah: Global Implications of African Cybercrime
- Volume 12, August 25, 2016
- IDA Support to the Threat Reduction in Africa (TRIA) Initiative
- Intervention in South Sudan: Challenges Ahead
- Ethiopian Intifada? Anti-Government Protests Shake the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front
- Volume 12, August 18, 2016
- In the Fight Against Boko Haram, What's the Role of the Multi-national Joint Task Force?
- Shifting Allegiances in Zimbabwe's Powerful Security Sector?
- Tanzania: Growing Concern Over Governance Reform
- Volume 12, August 11, 2016
- Democratic Republic of Congo: Delayed Elections Spark Political Unrest
- Efforts at Pan-African Integration: New Variations on an Old Theme
- Volume 12, August 4, 2016
- Municipal Elections Shake Up South African Politics
- Strangers in a Familiar Land: A Referendum of Invoirte?
- Volume 12, July 28, 2016
- Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Perils and Potential
- Zimbabwe—Difficulties Multiply
- Internal Divisions Aggravate Conflict in South Sudan
- Miscalculating Security: Obstacles to Reliable Data in Sub-Saharan Africa and Their Implications
- Volume 12, July 21, 2016
- Liberia: A Model for Security Sector Reform?
- PM Netanyahu's African Pilgrimage: Leveraging the Present to Overcome the Past
- Elections in Zambia: Credibility at Stake
- Unstable Foundations—Constitutional Insecurity and the Crisis in South Sudan
- Volume 11, July 14, 2016
- Extrajudicial Killings in Kenya: A Sign of Eroding Rule of Law?
- Fulani Militants in Nigeria: Mischaracterization Obscures Threat and Impedes Response
- Volume 11, June 30, 2016
- Niger Delta Avengers: Who are They and What Do They Want?
- Zimbabwe's Economy—The Beginning of Hope?
- Volume 11, May 19, 2016
- Kenya Moves to Close World's Largest Refugee Camp
- ISIS and WMD: Growing Hand in Hand in Kenya?
- Volume 11, May 5, 2016
- Terrorism In West Africa: Is Ghana Next?
- The Islamic State (IS) vs. Morocco: Proactive Policies Limit IS Success
- Volume 11, April 26, 2016
- The Islamic State in Algeria: Limited Success—For Now
- Social Media in Africa—A Gathering Force
- Volume 11, April 7, 2016
- Tunisia Battles The Islamic State—Tactical Win But Strategic Loss?
- Kenya's Political Environment Ahead of 2017 Vote
- Volume 10, March 24, 2016
- Ethiopia Moves Forward on Hydropower Dams
- Leaving Nothing to Chance: Social Media and the 2016 Republic of Congo Elections
- Volume 10, March 10, 2016
- How will the United States Respond to the Islamic State in Libya?
- Former VP Mujuru Launches Challenge to Mugabe in Zimbabwe
- Former Tanzanian President Mkapa Named New Mediator in Burundi Peach Talks
- Volume 10, February 24, 2016
- Elections in Uganda: The Support May Be Real, But The Process Is Flawed
- Nigeria's President Buhari—Dealing with Tough Challenges
- Volume 10, February 9, 2016
- Prospects for Free and Fair Elections in the DRC in 2016
- Zanzibar Election Crisis Continues
- Volume 10, December 17, 2015
- Peace at a Price: Nigeria's Presidential Amnesty Plan
- Military Integration in Africa
- Volume 10, December 10, 2015
- A Deadly "Rebellion Without a Cause" in the DRC
- A Turning Point for Burkina FASO?
- Volume 10, December 3, 2015
- Zimbabwe: Will Grace Mugabe Take Over From Her Husband?
- Student Activism and the Cost of Education in South Africa
- Uganda Sets Election Dates Amid Increasing Opposition to President Museveni
- Volume 10, November 19, 2015
- Timing is Everything: Elections and Conflict in Car
- "Corruption is Undermining Kenya's Future"
- Uganda Sets Election Dates Amid Increasing Opposition to President Museveni
- Volume 10, November 5, 2015
- Tanzania Votes: Elections Annulled in Zanzibar
- Africa and India—Relations in a New Phase
- Volume 10, October 29, 2015
- "Ghana in the Eyes of God"
- Rise in Governmental Use of Spyware in Africa
- Volume 10, October 22, 2015
- Economic Concerns Threaten African Growth Narrative
- Does Peacekeeping Work?
- Volume 9, September 17, 2015
- Zimbabwe: Former VP Mujuru Joins Fray
- Securing Elections in Africa
- Volume 9, September 10, 2015
- South Africa on the Edge—Political Paralysis and Economic Stagnation
- Constitutional Reform and Conflict in Africa
- Volume 9, September 3, 2015
- Why Election Violence in Africa Matters
- Tanzania:Tensions High in Zanzibar Ahead of October Vote
- Volume 9, August 20, 2015
- Elections in Uganda: A One-Man Show?
- Angola's Economic Problems Highlight Ties to China
- Volume 9, August 13, 2015
- Youth and Political Participation in Africa—Beyond Protests
- Challenges and Opportunities for Security Sector Reform in Africa
- Volume 9, August 6, 2015
- Sovereign Debt—A Threat to the African Growth Story?
- Julius Malema's Economic Freedom Fighters Party Turns 2
- Volume 9, July 30, 2015
- Cracking Down on Dissent in Angola
- Instability Returns to Lesotho
- Volume 9, July 23, 2015
- Zimbabwe—Politicians Maneuver as Economic Woes Continue
- Paying the Price for Public Corruption in Nigeria
- Volume 9, July 16, 2015
- Border Regions, Extremism, and Development
- Whiter Togo's Opposition?
- Volume 9, July 9, 2015
- What is the Purpose of Noncompetitive Elections in Semi-Authoritarian Countries?
- Russia and Africa—Measured Re-Engagement
- Volume 9, July 2, 2015
- The International Criminal Court: Justice for Whom?
- Madagascar: Impeachment Attempt Highlights Renewed Tensions
- Volume 8, June 25, 2015
- African Solutions for African Problems—Still Searching
- African Democracy Emerges from Below
- Volume 8, June 18, 2015
- Intra-African Trade—A Problem of "Thick Borders"
- Agriculture, Assumptions, and Data in Africa
- Volume 8, June 11, 2015
- Kabila's Attempt at a Third Term
- Opposition Boycotts By-Elections in Zimbabwe
- Volume 8, June 4, 2015
- Ethnicity, Security, and Conflict in Burundi
- Africa's Third Wave of Protests
- Volume 8, May 14, 2015
- Angola: Uptick in Protests
- Togo President Reelected in Peaceful but Disputed Election
- Volume 8, May 7, 2015
- Nigeria's State Elections: Less Visible, Just as Important
- Meeting Africa's Electricity Needs—What will the Future Look Like?
- Volume 8, April 30, 2015
- Xenophobia: South Africa's Successor to Apartheid
- Does Peacekeeping Fuel Mutiny in Africa?
- Volume 8, April 16, 2015
- Another Kenyan Tragedy—A Pattern Too Familiar
- Burundi 2015: Main Above Country?
- Volume 8, April 2, 2015
- Nigerian Elections: Ushering in a New Era of Politics?
- Zimbabwe: Court Cases Highlight Splits in Ruling Party
- Volume 7, March 20, 2015
- Expulsion of MPS Deepens Opposition Split in Zimbabwe
- Implications for Africa of Falling Oil and Gas Prices
- Volume 7, March 12, 2015
- Will Change of Government in Lesotho End Political Crisis?
- Opting Out: Tanzanian Constitutional Referendum Boycott
- Volume 7, February 12, 2015
- Oil Extraction in Kenya—Political and Geological Hurdles
- Pre-Election Violence Ahead of Poll in Lesotho
- Volume 7, February 5, 2015
- Nigera Votes: The Past as Prologue
- Madagascar: Progress on Reconciliation Amid Government Reshuffle
- Volume 7, January 26, 2015
- Trading White Hats for Blue Ones? China Sends an Infantry Battalion to South Sudan
- African Hydropolitics—Ethiopia's Other Dam
- Volume 7, January 15, 2015
- The Illusion of Consequence: Corruption and Impunity in Africa
- Coup Attempt in The Gambia Leads to Crackdown
- Volume 6, December 18, 2014
- China in Somalia—Reopening Its Embassy and Building Trust
- Security changes in Kenya Prompt Counterterrorism Debate
- Volume 6, December 11, 2014
- African Militaries—On a Spending Spree?
- Political Perks in Africa: Entitled Classes, Impoverished Masses
- Volume 6, December 4, 2014
- Women's Political Participation in Africa: An Upside of Conflict?
- In the Midst of Protests, will Togo Follow Burkina Faso?
- Volume 6, November 20, 2014
- Nile Waters Dispute Tips Toward A Peaceful Solution
- Constitution-Making in Tanzania: Precursor to Violence in 2015?
- Volume 6, November 14, 2014
- Can There Be A Good Coup?
- Are Medical Research Facilities in Africa Secure Enough?
- Volume 6, November 6, 2014
- Zimbabwe—The First Lady Makes Waves
- 90 Days of Guy Scott: One Week Into a Transitioning Zambian Presidency
- The Uncertain Durability of Longstanding Rulers and "Stable" Regimes in Africa
- Volume 6, October 30, 2014
- Constitution-Making in Tanzania: Part Three
- Mozambique: Opposition Gains in Election
- Volume 6, October 17, 2014
- Madagascar: Ravalomanana Return and Detention a Threat to Recovery
- Constitution-Making in Tanzania—Part Two
- Volume 6, October 10, 2014
- Kenya's Security—Westgate One Year On
- Increased U.S. Oil Production Takes a Toll on Nigeria
- Volume 6, October 3, 2014
- Constitution-Making in Tanzania—Part One
- Despite Agreement Political Crisis Likely to Persist in Lesotho
- Volume 5, September 17, 2014
- Ebola in West Africa—Also an Economic Toll
- Angola's Sovereign Wealth Fund—A Progress Update
- Volume 5, September 11, 2014
- Al-Shabaab Under New Leadership
- South African Defense Reform—Stuck in Low Gear
- Volume 5, September 4, 2014
- Zimbabwe's Mugabe at 90—Busy as Ever
- Conflict in Central African Republic: Prospects for Peace
- Volume 5, August 28, 2014
- Developments In and Prospects for Ghana's Petroleum Sector
- Botswana's 2014 Elections: Conspiracy Theories and a Long-Suffering Opposition—Recipe for Disaster?
- Volume 5, August 21, 2014
- Arts, Culture, and Civic Education in Africa
- The Dilemmas of Training Africa's Militaries
- Volume 5, August 14, 2014
- Elections and Technology: Putting the Cart Before the Horse
- Increasing African Debt: A Cause for Concern?
- Volume 5, August 7, 2014
- Islamic Finance Gaining Momentum in Africa
- Zanzibar: A Power Sharing Success Story?
- Volume 5, July 23, 2014
- France in Africa—Setting Up for the Long Haul
- Progress Toward New Peace Agreement Ahead of Elections in Mozambique
- Volume 5, July 17, 2014
- Ebola Outbreak in West Africa: Mistrust, Traditional Customs, and Misconceptions Fuel the Fire
- Women and Boko Haram: Targets and Operatives?
- Volume 5, July 10, 2014
- The Somali Charcoal Industry—Strange Bedfellows
- Coalition Crisis Sparks Coup Rumors in Lesotho
- Volume 5, July 3, 2014
- Kenya: The Mystery behind the Lamu Attacks—Terrorism or Politics?
- Enhancing Transparency or Increasing Administrative Burdens: Dodd-Frank in Africa
- Volume 4, June 26, 2014
- Africa Online—For Good and Ill
- Zimbabwe: New Infighting in Mugabe Succession Battle
- Volume 4, June 19, 2014
- The Enemy of My Enemy Is My Friend: the New Emir of Kano and the 2015 Nigerian Elections
- When the Dust Settles in Guinea-Bissau, Who Will Remain Standing?
- Volume 4, June 11, 2014
- South Africa After the Elections—Business as Usual?
- Turning a New Leaf in Madagascar?
- Volume 4, June 5, 2014
- Religious Tolerance in Sub-Saharan Africa—Culturally Rooted
- When the State Fails to Provide: Innovation in Africa
- Volume 4, May 29, 2014
- Mali—2012 All Over Again?
- Malawi: Tensions as Partial Recount Delays Election Results
- Volume 4, May 22, 2014
- Poaching: From Conservation Concern to Security Threat
- Responding to Terrorism in Nigeria: Fanning the Flames?
Volume 4, May 15, 2014
- Eritrea—Time for Change?
- Sata Stalls New Zambian Constitution
Volume 4, May 7, 2014
- China: Stepping It Up in Africa
- Leadership Crisis in Zimbabwe's Main Opposition Party
Volume 4, May 1, 2014
- State-Sponsored "Vigilantism" in Nigeria and the Fight Against Boko Haram
- Egypt Failing to Stop Ethiopia's Dam on the Nile
Volume 4, April 24, 2014
- Ghana, The United States, and Iran: Balancing Alliances with Mutual Interests
- Elections and the Autocratic Drift in Africa
Volume 4, April 17, 2014
- Kenya—Mass Arrests Counterproductive and Undermine Security Reform Pledge
- A Litmus Test for Guinea's President
Volume 4, April 11, 2014
- Boko Haram and the 2015 Nigerian Elections
- Turkey in Africa: An Emerging Influencer?
Volume 4, April 3, 2014
- Kenya's Muslims—In the Eye of the Storm
- Have African Union Policies Helped Reduce Military Coups?
Volume 3, March 27, 2014
- Burundi 2015: If at First You Don't Succeed...
- Shale Gas: The Solution to South Africa's Energy Crisis?
Volume 3, March 20, 2014
- Who will Succeed Angola's dos Santos?
- Zimbabwe's Economy--Heading for New Trouble
Volume 3, March 13, 2014
- Electronic Waste: Opportunity to Bridge the Digital Divide or Eco-Disaster?
- Malawi Election Watch May 2014: Reasons for Optimism?
Volume 3, February 27, 2014
- South Africa's Defense -- Time for Decisions?
- A Viable "Third Way" Political Party in Mozambique?
Volume 3, February 20, 2014
- Identity Politics in the Central African Republic
- Urbanization + Construction + Illicit Trade = More Money Laundering Through Real Estate
Volume 3,February 12, 2014
- The African Growth Story Continues--But What If...
- Zimbabwe Opposition Faces Leadership Challenge
Volume 3,February 6, 2014
- The Personalization of Political Power in Nigeria and South Africa: Style Over Substance
- Elections in Bissau: Hope for the Best, but Expect the Worse
Volume 3, January 23, 2014
- China-Japan Tensions Play Out in Africa
- Police Vetting in Kenya Illustrates Both Progress and Challenges to Reform
Volume 3, January 16, 2014
- Brazil: Looking to Expand Beyond Lusophone Africa?
- Whither the Central African Republic?
Volume 3, January 8, 2014
- Education Reform--A Key to South Africa's Future
- Contested Presidential Election in Madagascar
Volume 2, December 20, 2013
- Countering Al-Shabaab's Role in the Charcoal Trade: Time for Economic Warfare
- April 2014: A Look Forward to the Next Election in South Africa
Volume 2, December 13, 2013
- France's Latest African Rescue Mission--The Central African Republic
- The Fallout from Malawi's "Cashgate" Corruption Scandal
Volume 2, December 5, 2013
- Petro-Pirates in the Gulf of Guinea
- Despite Protests, Dos Santos and MPLA Firmly in Control of Angola
Volume 2, November 27, 2013
- Waters of the Nile—Dispute Simmers but Armed Conflict Unlikely
- Justice for the Victims of Post-Election Violence in Kenya: Delayed or Denied?
Volume 2, November 21, 2013
- Angola’s Sovereign Wealth Fund—Paving the Way for the Dos Santos Family Dynasty?
- Radical Land Reform Unlikely in South Africa
Volume 2, November 14, 2013
- Africa’s Expanded Access to Credit Markets—Opportunity and Risk
- The Crisis in Central African Republic: How Late is Too Late?
Volume 2, November 7, 2013
- Ending Angola’s and Portugal’s Strategic Partnership: Political Posturing or Real Threat?
- Zanu–PF Elections Highlight Tense Succession Battle in Zimbabwe
Volume 2, October 31, 2013
- Madagascar: The Calm before the Storm?
- East African Community—Coming Apart or Coming Together?
Volume 2, October 24, 2013
- Africa Rising, but Not Its Leaders?
- Renamo Reneges on 1992 Civil War Peace Deal in Mozambique
Volume 2, October 17, 2013
- The M23 in the DRC—Dying or Thriving?
- Democracy in Trouble: Assessing the State of Press Freedoms in East Africa
Volume 2, October 10, 2013
- African Numbers
- Women Jihadis: Emerging Trend or Media Fantasy?
Volume 2, October 3, 2013
- Oil in Turkana: Recipe for Disaster?
- Kenya and the Rule of Law
Volume 1, September 26, 2013
- Westgate: The View From Nakuru, Nairobi, and Washington, D.C.
- Mali—Too Early to Proclaim Victory
Volume 1, September 19, 2013
- Somalia—Perspectives on The Juba Agreement
- Guinea-Bissau: Little Democratic Progress Despite Small Wins
Volume 1, September 12, 2013
- Political Reform in Burkina Faso: Concession Or Consolidation?
- East African Regional Integration—No Easy Task
Volume 1, September 5, 2013
- South Africa: Strikes Are Not the Main Problem—Slow Growth Is
- Ghana and China: A Bilateral Balancing Act
Volume 1, August 29, 2013
- Madagascar, Zimbabwe, and the Politics of Election Observation
- Kenyatta's Visit to China--Less Than Meets The Eye?
Volume 1, August 14, 2013
- Sata Faces Renewed Criticism Amid Increasing Political Violence in Zambia
- Uganda's Oil Sector: On the Right Track?
Volume 1, August 8, 2013
- Zimbabwe: Hegemonic Peace -- At Least for Now
- DRC -- UN's Intervention Force Off to a Slow Start
Volume 1, August 1, 2013
- Encouraging Developments to Ease Guinea's Political Paralysis?
- Divided Military Remains Threat to Stability in Madagascar Ahead of Elections
Volume 1, July 25, 2013
- Zimbabwe's Election - One Week to Go
- After the Dust Has Settled: Kenya's 2013 Elections
Volume 1, July 17, 2013
- Democracy by Coup?
- Political Agreement Improves Electoral Environment in Togo
Volume 1, July 11, 2013
- Japan in Africa -- Dealing with China's Lead
Volume 1, July 3, 2013
- Electoral Violence in Africa: Critical Lessons and New Directions
- Africa's Ever-Expanding Drug Scourge
- Return to Conflict Unlikely Despite Upsurge of Political Violence in Mozambique
Volume 1, June 27, 2013
- French Africa Policy Under Hollande--More than Mali
- Africa Hemorrhaging: Illicit Capital Flight Threatens Africa's Development
- Niger: Sahelian Dominoes?
Volume 1, June 21, 2013
- Elections in Togo Unlikely to Resolve Political Crisis
Volume 1, June 13, 2013
- Ethiopian Protest Demonstration--Government Liberalization or Symbolism?
- How Fraud Migh (Indirectly) Promote Democracy in Africa
Volume 1, June 6, 2013
- Coup-Proofing: Lessons from the Region for the Central African Republic
- Policing in Kenya: From Politicized to Democratized?
Volume 1, May 30, 2013
- Islamic Extremism and Uranium-The Witches' Brew in Niger
- How Quickly We Forget: The Saga of the ICC Cases Against Kenyatta and Ruto
Volume 1, May 23, 2013
- Without Security Reforms, Violent Elections Likely in Zimbabwe
- RENAMO vs. FRELIMO: Could the Political Crisis Hold Development Hostage?
Volume 1, May 16, 2013
- Mali's July Elections: Bringing Peace or Conflict?
- Madagascar's Elections and the Potential for Violence Prolonged Civil Conflict
- African Forces for African Problems?
Volume 1, May 6, 2013
- Will Amnesty for Boko Haram Stop the Violence?
- Punishing Corruption in Senegal: Justice or Retribution?
- Africa Watch April-June 2015
George F. Ward, Stephanie M. Buchard, Alexander H. Noyes, Janette Yarwood, IDA Document D-5547 June 2015
- Africa Watch January-March 2015
George F. Ward, Stephanie M. Burchard, Eliza M. Johannes, Alexander H. Noyes, IDA Document D-5465 March 2015
- Africa Watch October-December 2014
George F. Ward, Stephanie M. Burchard, Ashley N. Bybee, Alexander H. Noyes, IDA Document D-5389 December 2014
- The Africa Watch January-March 2013
Dorina A. Bekoe, Mary E. Boswell, Stephanie M. Burchard, Ashley N. Bybee, Ashton M. Callahan, Ivana Djak, Brittany T. Gregerson, John A. Kringen, Alexander H. Noyes, George F. Ward, Janette Yarwood, Caroline F. Ziemke-Dickens IDA Document D-4819 March 2013
- The Africa Watch October-December 2012
Dorina A. Bekoe, Mary E. Boswell, Stephanie M. Burchard, Ashley N. Bybee, Ashton M. Callahan, Ivana Djak, Brittany T. Gregerson, Alexander H. Noyes, George F. Ward, Janette Yarwood, Caroline F. Ziemke-Dickens IDA Document D-4818 March 2013
- The Africa Watch July-September 2012
Dorina A. Bekoe, Mary E. Boswell, Stephanie M. Burchard, Ashley N. Bybee, Ashton M. Callahan, Ivana Djak, Brittany T. Gregerson, Eliza M. Johannes, John A. Kringen, Alexander H. Noyes, George F. Ward, Janette Yarwood, Caroline F. Ziemke-Dickens IDA Document D-4817 March 2013